Prostitution in Utrecht
This article is about prostitution in the Dutch city of Utrecht.
The window prostitution in Utrecht occurs mainly along the Vecht to the Zandpad, also known as Red Bridge named after a nearby drawbridge. The window prostitutes are working in houseboats . The windows are visible from the car, the use of the car is popular among prostitution customers.
There are 34 to 40 boats with licensed prostitution, with a total of 143 'windows' (workplaces). Since 2001, a HAP, Living Starting Prostitutes (see below section Tippelzone Europalaan), located in building "The Bridge". Since 2005, all prostitution operators to continuously monitor. On Zandpad has an operator between 22.00 hours and 4.00 hours two supervisors constantly present on the streets monitoring, the other operators have a supervisor who is an office.
Hard Spheres Street
In the center of Utrecht, the Breedstraat Area, is a street where window prostitution is practised, the Hard Spheres Street. There are ten licensed brothels, all of the same operator. They contain a total of 17 windows. This operator 24 hours a day a guard / supervisor, which is available on the first floor of a building and also runs through the street, little mess resolves itself and call the police otherwise.
Since 1986 an official function tippelzone the Europalaan on a service road on the side of a business area. Across the road are gardens and a residential area.
The prostitution area is officially open from 19.00 pm to 2.00 am. The municipality provides more than 150 permits to prostitutes to the area to work. In early 2009 there were 138 permits issued. The legal afwerkplekken of the zone along the Kanaalweg on the back of the same business.
Huiskamer Aanloop Prostituees (HAP)
The zone since 1986 Starting a Huiskamer Aanloop Prostituees (HAP), now in a bus. HAP is for aid and services to prostitutes, that is, ability to go the toilet, eat or drink or to buy condoms, a chat, to receive free medical care as a doctor a few times a week present. According to some sources is seen in the HAP-bus is an irrigator and syringes exchange. The HAP-bus is open from 20.30 to 1.30 hours and is staffed by social workers. However, if a crew of two fasteners to fail suddenly, the bus, with only a bemanner totally sealed.
Soliciting outside the zone
Presumably, slightly outside the official zone getippeld , at locations such as the Bridge Muinck Keizer, Baden-Powellweg, Vondellaan Breedstraat, and the prostitution area after hours.
There were also early 2009 in the city of Utrecht five brothels (with liquor license) or private homes (with no liquor license) with a prostitution license and an estimated 32 brothels without authorization, and about 200 to 300 home workers and escorts.
Middle Ages and the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands
At the end of the Middle Ages did the Utrecht Council, which set itself the task in town to promote the public interest, frequent efforts to regulate prostitution. Prostitution was not prohibited unless it is open or held in cemeteries. Through regulations stipulated that prostitution could take place only in the post against the city wall.
In the last quarter of the 16th century, when Utrecht came under the influence of Protestantism and became part of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces , they tried to ban prostitution. There was, however, has intervened, but did not lead to many results. In the city were prostitutes, "whore" values, "ravothuizen and matchmaker exist.
French period and nineteenth centuries
The annexation by the French in 1800, the French legislation in force. Until then the ban on prostitution was abolished by 1811 and prostitution increased sharply in Utrecht. The edge of the current Town and the city wall , was a place where prostitutes and brothels were. In Zadelstraat were approved brothels located. It tried to combat public nuisance and health risks under control.
After the departure of the French was the policy on prostitution in the towns lie. Utrecht was no ban on prostitution, although such people complained about the overt nature of the Zadelstraat. Prostitution was not prohibited by the church to become and remain, particularly for young and unmarried men. Since 1850, the municipality into a system involving prostitutes, free of charge were voluntarily tested for syphilis , but this was stopped because of lack of enthusiasm put in 1885. Through the Municipalities Act of 1851 were recognized brothels.
By the end of the 19th century, followed by more disadvantages as protestant christians and residents. In 1890 there was a 'Regulation on public houses of prostitution "(brothels). Many results had not, the penalties were low, brothels were a more underground nature, and probably even increased the number of brothels increasing. In 1911 followed a national law that banned the keeping of brothels and the government would enable it harder to act.
Period to 1973
Gradually appears around 1911, "window prostitution" have developed in Utrecht.
While in 1929 all street prostitution offences had been (see section History, street prostitution ), were in 1935 also window prostitution and such prohibitions because, in the opinion of the police and possibly others, soliciting ban had little effect on women who their door inviting the audience appeal, sometimes even if it were their "merchandise" impose.
In 1953, soliciting and window prostitution ban subject to changes included in the new General Police under Article 31.
In 1972-'73 set B and W in residential neighborhoods there is "serious nuisance of prostitution". In particular the Vogelenbuurt would inconvenience of window prostitution hand involve traffic nuisance to evening or late at night, the other from "spoiling" of "the look of the neighborhood" by the prostitution itself. Then the council decided on May 10, 1973 APV Article 31 be amended so that criminal is "one of whom is known that prostitution operates" and that "on a public road (...) visible on a way back or in a frame [is] that can reasonably be assumed that there will cease to invite to fornication, although Mayor and Aldermen to designate places where the ban does not apply. Immediately after the point B and W Zandpad as where the new ban does not apply. Moreover, also continues the ban on street prostitution unchanged.
The reasoning is: we recognize "that there is a demand for prostitution" and some residential areas are now feeling much affected by window prostitution, along the sandy path along the river Vecht in houseboats is a place "where prostitution is tolerated can be", the proposed amendment of the APV "allows the existing situation including the Zandpad to" legalize".
It enabled the government Utrecht is a market with few private providers ( oligopolists ) the ability to legally window prostitution businesses, and since then, they oligopoly position. Although these oligopolists since 2000 requires certain facilities to be realized in the work areas-cum-legal-jobs they rent, but they can get their asking price are free to determine, and thus government protection of their customers (= the prostitutes) up to exploit.
At unknown time after May 1973 is the Hardebollenstraat designated as a place where the ban does not apply to window prostitution.
1997: Policy tightening
In June 1997 with the introduction of General Local Regulation of Utrecht in 1997 tightened the prostitution policy. Not only openly visible window prostitution and soliciting prostitution (see Section Street Prostitution ) are prohibited except where they are not banned, but added in APV Article 69 ban in "a device (...) opportunity prostitution commit" or there to give "prostitution to provoke".
2000: licensing of sex establishments
In January 2000 the council writes: a minute as the nationwide ban on brothels is abolished "the municipality may not prohibit exploitation of prostitution". They propose that "prostitution should be regulated by using the APV for sex establishments and escort services to set up a license. Starting (...) the current number of establishments tolerated.
The APR states in 2000 that under "sex establishment" among other means a "publicly accessible enclosed space where prostitution takes place" (Article 69), that it is prohibited without a permit from the Board of Mayor and Aldermen a sex establishment (Article 70 - 1) or an escort company (Art. 70-21) to exploit, and there is at most 53 brothels approval will be granted, with limits on the number of workspaces (Article 70-20).
General Local Regulation in 2010  , these items are substantially unchanged, but numbered as 3:1 and 3:2, later numbered differently.
2010: Policy tightening
In June 2010 the City Council adopted restrictive measures on window prostitution. Reasons are, in accordance with the City "permanent presence of human beings on the sandy path, and the fact that according to the church in 'criminal' or 'criminal investigation' Snape (2007) "Trafficking in persons is proved, even the Zandpad".
- A window prostitute must be registered in the municipality. This registration procedure should take at least one week.
- A framework must be a prostitute prostitution room for a minimum of four weeks rent.
- A prostitute windows should not exceed 12 hours per day have a sex room.
In addition, window prostitution operators to the church it had no space to want to rent to women younger than 21 years. This is apparently the approval of mayor and aldermen, but the council appears to be unsatisfied.
In January 2011 claimed the largest operator Utrecht window prostitution in court that the compulsory registration of prostitutes has already lead to the licensed prostitutes from Utrecht prostitution industry go to other communities or to "the illegal prostitution".
Period to 1980
One may suspect (see Prostitution in the Netherlands in the nineteenth century ) that street prostitution in Utrecht is a long established phenomenon. In 1929, Article 23a in Regulation Strait police force that soliciting prostitution on designated streets can be prevented. Following is a letter from the Chief Commissioner of Police to the Mayor in which he writes about complaints from citizens "about the haunt of women of suspect morals" at particular locations, and rumors that "on several occasions soldiers (only in the army came) to set environment [were] attracted ". In October 1929 twenty-nine point B and W streets where the new ban will apply streetwalker, then this list of streets repeatedly extended or changed, including in 1933, '35, March '40, '48 and '53.
In 1935, however this article 23bis changed so that now in general or on the road to invite "fornication" is prohibited.
In 1953 and window prostitution soliciting are prohibited subject to changes included in the new General Police under Article 31.
In the year 1980 were in Utrecht soliciting prostitutes in the city center. That gave, says a team of V & D , much disruption, the police drove the prostitutes from one place to another district, and it was "a misery".
In 1984-'85 created the council in the APV the ability of local invalidity of the prohibition on soliciting prostitution. Simultaneously, the definition of the crime changed: it was now applied to persons who "may be assumed that it is on prostitution surrender, bans on public roads (...) someone (...) to fornication to invite" except on roads designated by B and W. Then in 1985-'86 Europalaan designated area where the ban does not apply to street prostitution, and Utrecht there in 1986 suggests the official tippelzone in.
In 1999, the zone is established and no longer protested. Social workers find the area a success. The zone has elsewhere in the country a good reputation and thus attracts women from all over the world.
influx of prostitutes
In 2003, has averaged 47 per night prostitutes in the hulpverleningsbus. After closure of the prostitution area in Amsterdam in December 2003 and stricter licensing rules on the areas in The Hague and Rotterdam take on the zone in Utrecht, the increased number of prostitutes coming from different places.
To reduce this influx 'check' the police early 2004 'sharper for those who drop off and pick prostitutes. In 2004, the number of prostitutes increased, there arises in the municipal nuisance in the area, and police and rescue the situation is less "manageable".
As a further restriction measure gives Utrecht in September '04 to the women from the Utrecht region in the huiskamerbus priority. This too does the number of prostitutes in 'Runway' little or no decrease: they are average in October 1963, while the city seeks to up to 50. In November '04 Utrecht considering a pass system, and urges on the other area cities to open their account or otherwise "their responsibility".
Change in offence definition and deployment pass system
By October 2005 the definition of the crime again changed: the word 'fornication' disappears from the text. Now it is a person who "can be assumed that it is on prostitution, banned on the road (...) someone (...) to prostitution to move, to join or to provoke" excluded persons with a permit roads will be designated by the Board adopted by the college times. This is indeed the pass system for the prostitutes entered prostitution area. From 2010 this situation remains unchanged.
- Evaluation Policy 2008-2009 Prostitution Utrecht, Utrecht Municipality press release, October 2009.
- Tightening measures to restrict flow to tippelzone Europalaan Press Release City of Utrecht, 10 November 2004.
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