Prostitution in Groningen
This article is about prostitution in the Dutch city of Groningen.
Window prostitution in Groningen takes place in two areas, both within the Diepenring area. KCustomers come for their sexual trips to Groningen from Ommelanden , Friesland , Drenthe and even Germany . This makes the Groningen red light districts a centre of regional sex tourism.
Nieuwstad in the southern part city is the red light district around Groningen. On 300 meters portion of the street there are 95 prostitution windows at street level forming an almost continuous gallery on both sides. The floors above are either occupied or contain prostitution workspaces. The street has three cafes, the buildings look well maintained and the pavement is in good condition and very clean.
In the A-Quarter in the northwest part of the city prostitution takes place in a street that changed its name twice: Vishoek – Hoekstraat – Muurstraat. In the total length of 850 meters are 51 prostitution windows in small groups. Most of the street is occupied. The street also has three bars, two cafeterias, a dance hall, a hairdresser and a sex shop. The southern facade of the building line jumps 15 times, often about 1 ½ meters. The buildings look neatly maintained, but the pavement is in poor condition and poorly cleaned. The price of the services of prostitutes is lower here than in the Nieuwstad.
During the consultation period for Zoning (March 1995 to October 31, 1996}, were some civilians and a neighborhood association in their reaction reported problems in relation to window prostitution in A-Quarter. neighborhood association A Quarter talked about "traffic" for prostitution. H. van de Water spoke of "park crowds" by visiting prostitutes. Messrs. Schenk and others talked about "traffic problem" and "whores screaming and loud music"  .
In June 2008, in an interview with the council about problems in residential areas and the (non) acting police, said neighborhood association A-ward: "They include the massive Visserstraat wrongly parked. Especially at night is that a lot of noise. The police do nothing. I believe that there may be Saturday night until Monday morning handing out speeding tickets not '  .
History of window prostitution in Groningen
- For history to 1800: History of prostitution in the Netherlands
1800 - 1911: regulated brothels
Probably has traditionally Groningen prostitutes and sometimes 'brothels'. Between 1813 and 1822 is in the city, the French model, a "regulation on the public and the houses of girls Debauche" inter alia, to improve the prostitutes, medically checked. In 1861 the town warrant, at the urging of the national government, a new "Regulations on the superintendence of the board and divide prostitutes' out. The brothels are located in the 19th century around the Zuiderdiep  .
1911 - 1980: tolerance
When in 1911 the nationwide ban on brothels is introduced disappear overt and official brothels. Exists then open windows and street prostitution  , which is also tolerated by the authorities  . It is certain that "the regulations of police" between 1863 and 1960 has contained an article that referred directly to prostitution  .
In 1960 Mayor and Aldermen in writing the notes to the all-new General Police Regulation (APV) that Chapter VI "the necessary provisions to combat immorality" contains  . We see three items actually go beyond the prevailing national legislation on prostitution. Article 99 creates the opportunity to act against soliciting prostitution, and Article 100 prohibits a prostitute from a house to attract customers, Article 101 prohibits, in a plot to allow others to "fornication"  .
When examining the city council opposition Councillor Mr de Waard  against Article 101, first because he term 'fornication' is unclear, partly because it APV article goes beyond Article 250bis of the Penal Code (' general ban on brothels')  . By Articles 99 and 100 also makes no objection.
Despite all these police regulations appear both before and after 1960 the practice, that empty incoming store pandjes sometimes a prostitute be rented or purchased, which declared unfit dwellings into use for prostitution and official tenants of homes sometimes through prostitution, which and municipal police in all these situations have little or no action against the prostitution  .
In 1973, there are probably about 94 brothels in the city: the Nieuwstad 32, 38 spread over ten other streets in Downtown-South, and spread over 24 streets in eleven A Quarter (Downtown-northwest)  . In 1974 speaking mayor, superintendent of police and chief prosecutor with each other, not to act against the existing prostitution establishments, but that it "would be prevented that (...) would establish new such devices"  .
1981 - 1999: Reducing tolerated prostitution
On October 27, 1981 B and W take on a note to "prostitution center-south. In it, they: "A large-scale reduction in the number of window prostitution ads, we believe (...) undesirable" and "The urban renewal activities in Downtown South require fast (...) movement (...) of [prostitution] business" in scrapping properties and certain properties adjacent to or opposite proposed replacement building, the latter because it proposed "[enhanced] functions in connection with residential nuisance not compatible with window prostitution". Later in the note without further explanation constitute "the displacement or elimination program that provided for brothels  .
The council committee on General and Administrative Affairs (ABZ) on January 27, 1982 discusses the note and has no problem with the proposed plan  , the Labour Party values even as "mild municipal policy." There are then no signs of any real local relocation program for prostitutes, presumably, the municipality is about 20 to 24 brothels for little money expropriated and demolished after the prostitutes on to fend for leaving  .
On April 19, 1983 decisions B and W in a new note window prostitution only to "tolerate" in fairly accurately identified buildings in Nieuwstad, Vishoek, Hoekstraat en Muurstraat, and all other window prostitution houses "before September 1, 1983 entered must be" [17 ] . The council committee ABZ receive this note in June '83, but it seems not to have discussed at the meeting  . As of September 1, 1983 begins the police actually tolerated prostitutes outside the area to convert hours and close premises by warrant closing the doors sticking  .
The APV is not aligned with any grace acts of 1974, '81 and '83. As of October 1994 is the new APV, the criminalization of "(...) indoors (...) the attention of passers-by to draw to itself "(see Article 100 in 1960) removed the ban on brothels and the former Article 101 modern formulated, now Article 95: It is prohibited in "a device (...) to others the opportunity to commit prostitution"  . But now in the APV since the '83 de facto policy of tolerance for prostitution businesses ignored the local realities, so let the two legal coexistence.
In June 1997 the council decided that "prostitution prostitution policy is to function as much as possible (...) from Muurstraat to disappear"  . Clear arguments for this are not specified, except a hint at traffic problems.
2000 - 2005: limited legal prostitution
As of October 1, 2000, Article 95 of the APV is replaced by the new Article 95a: "It is a prohibited device or a prostitution escort company to operate (...) without authorization from the mayor". An individual home-based prostitute may not be deemed "prostitution establishment" and therefore not controlled. As of October 1, 2000 includes a list of 36 public buildings in the Nieuwstad and 22 buildings in the A district, as permitted by the numbers of 'windows', where window prostitution is allowed. Also apply installation and organizational requirements for legally leased workspace/legal jobs.
The list of properties and number of windows has changed somewhat since then, and has since 2005 Nieuwstad 40 buildings (with 95 windows) and in A-22 district buildings (51 windows). The APV article legitimized prostitution limited extent since the introduction of APVG 2009 numbered as Article 3:4.
Fighting prostitution in the A-Quarter, 2007
In 2007 Mayor tries Wallage prostitution in five buildings in the Hoekstraat in A quarter to end with a Bibob procedure. The judge and the State Council in February 2008 approved this action by the municipality on. Shortly thereafter Wallage mayor announced that he wants the window prostitution "focus" in the Nieuwstad, so the "inconvenience" of prostitution in A-quarter reduction.
On April 8, 2009 message to the newspaper of the North on the front that a "strictly confidential" report of Intraval concludes that "focus" of the city-prostitution in Groningen Nieuwstad "feasible and desirable". The same report, some time later approved by the council and made public, suggests that in prostitution in many quarters A wrong, yet without any facts.
Ban prostitution A Quarter, 2009
On June 24, 2009 Mayor Wallage wrote to the council, by 2016 no longer permits for window prostitution in the A district wishing to grant or renew. Reasons he mentions not.
"Finance and Security" in October 2009 found three parties together nine seats, supports this conclusion of prostitution area A neighborhood, for several reasons. The Stadspartij will "lower [prostitution] windows" because "the economic basis of prostitution is weak". D66 for the conclusion of the prostitution area for suspects' link between prostitution and nuisance ". VVD is not against this conclusion because "sees prospect of a lively A quarter". Five parties, SP, Green, CDA, and Student Christian Union and City together eighteen seats, they support a presumed but nonexistent, tuition proposal to the prostitution of A Quarter to relocate to Nieuwstad. Labour (12 seats) to conclude that prostitution area, behold them no reason. The new mayor Rehwinkel speaks as though the letter of June 2009 a "movement" of the prostitution of A Quarter to Nieuwstad would be proposed.
This shows the political treatment have been completed: the college's proposal in June '09 is no longer pending in the council. In December 2009 the Mayor announced in a letter to the prostitution operators A quarter note, that the City Council has approved plans to prostitution by 2016 no more A quarter to allow.
Red Light District
In the industrial area south, on a former parking lot next to the Bornholmstraat, about 3 ½ miles from the Grote Markt in the center, has, since 1998 the Groninger tippelzone. The zone, one hundred meters long, with fences somewhat shielded from the public highway, but up close it recognizable from a distance, barely visible. The zone is open from 19.00 to 02.00 hours.
The area are three large dug-outs for the prostitutes, to sit or lie. In reasonable weather, there is one evening about 10 to 20 women in the area. In 2008 a total of 135 different women living room (see below) in the zone. The zone of working women is 80% addicted to hard drugs. Completely out of sight behind the zone, not open to men only, are thirteen called 'afwerkplaatsen'.
Apart from the area stands a building with the 'living room' of the street prostitution project of Addicts Northern Netherlands. It has bathrooms for the prostitutes, aid offer of doctors, nurses, social workers and addiction, coffee and meals, condoms, needle exchange, social contact. Since 2007, also in that building for a hard drug user space.
In an evaluation in 1999 to provide some female prostitutes, soliciting outside the zone because the zone too much for too few men are women.
Prostitution Expert Marieke Doorninck in 2003 considered that the prostitution area, unlike for example the Hague and Amsterdam, well manageable in part because of Groningen migrant prostitutes are banned without a work permit.
Beginning 2009, the Board of Mayor and Aldermen know that the prostitution area is working well for minimizing inconvenience for citizens, and medical care, outreach to street prostitutes.
Still will not recognize any politician Groningen street prostitution as a worthwhile activity. They talk only about the prostitutes as "weak", that one who "prefer a different life" will lead and be convinced that "their addiction, [and] their ability to earn lots of money quickly, accurately". In that respect, so nothing has changed since 1960.
History of street prostitution in Groningen
1900 - 1982
Street prostitution is probably as old as (brothel) prostitution. The oldest known dated around 1911 entries in Groningen.
Only since 1960, the General Police Regulations an article force against soliciting prostitution, reading: it is forbidden by the mayor to designated roads, on specified hours, "is back and forth for some time or succession same place on hold, after one of a police officer in the interest of public morality has been given the charge to remove himself from the way ".
As of February 1961 are already identified several streets in downtown streetwalkers where prohibited. By September 1962 this will be extended to the whole area inside the Diepenring, and also the streets around the main station.
1983 - 1987, increased street prostitution
Letters from the Commissioner of Police to the Mayor in 1983 and 1985, and a letter from B and W on the City Council in 1986, gives the impression that in 1983 and '84 increased street prostitution.
Furthermore, the police in that letter in 1983, the (street) prostitutes and prostitute "are often addicted, and that, partly through" intensive supervision of this breach "in the city, the march itself has largely moved to Area Noorderplantsoen. DThen B and W directly extend the prohibition to soliciting Noorderplantsoen environment. The letter from early 1985 requires the police to the mayor: you can prostitutes 16 or 18 or 22 times verbalizing, or one week in prison, but they go anyway to soliciting. They are, writes the police, all "seriously addicted to heroin."
Then, the PSP -raadsfractie in January 1985 a proposal: let's just assume that "(street) prostitution temporarily will remain ', and let's march permit to Zuiderdiep, Zuiderkuipen, Reitemakersreige, Museum, Small Aa and Hoge der Aa. This leads to objections in the municipality. The objections are: female street prostitution is annoying because residents and visit "harassed by runners whore" and late into the night lap motorists and cause noise nuisance. Mayor Staatsen concludes early as September 1985 that a prostitution area in the city impossible for "nuisance" and also outside the center is not possible. The PSP plan killed in the council of January 1987.
1991 - 1998, three plans
The march continued in the city, about the complaints of civilians continued, and probably also kept the 'chasing' of prostitutes by the police. In 1991, the Labour raadsfractie a proposal for a zone to the streetwalker Sontweg, in 1992, the B and W to a tippelzone Bloemsingel for, both plans appear to be stranded somewhere.
In 1995 counts of Groningen in the Street Prostitution Project (SPP) about 175 female prostitutes. The council groups of Labour, Green, VVD and Student and City set in September 1995 for "a prostitution area with a lounge and afwerkplekken" to send to the Bornholmstraat on an industrial estate and then soliciting ban in the city strictly enforce. Following representations  of the companies in which promoters are shifting their industrial zone of the proposed public road to a parking lot side of the road.
In the council meeting on February 21, 1996, this plan accepted, with the support of the initiative four parties plus the CDA, which together account for 27 of the 39 council seats. As entrepreneurs in the business area sued the decision of the Supreme Court allowed the area to be opened only in 1998.
Outside the ‘Diepenring’(= Old Town) there are three massage parlours. In November 2006 decision w B and two outside the red light didtricts - and A-Nieuwstad quarter - more than three-massage parlor prostitution establishments may be licensed.
- New Groningen Encyclopedia, lemma 'Prostitution'. (Editorial Bread Dr. P. et al.) Region-Projekt Publishers, Groningen 1999 (includes two citations).
- APV 1960: Report can be found in the acts of the City of Groningen on September 1, 1959 to 1 September 1960, Appendices, p. 434, Annex No. 784: Proposal (...) concerning adoption of the General Police for the City of Groningen . [Annex is in session year '59 / '60, met by APV in session year '60 / '61 on Sept. 19. '60.]
- Downtown Zoning Plan 1995, adopted by the city of Groningen in June 1997, issued by the Service Planning and Economic Affairs, June 1997.
- Intraval - Inventory window prostitution market town of Groningen , April 2009, principal city of Groningen, presumably by her published in June 2009. Accessed 16 November '09.
- [1607-201] Groningen Archives, Access 1607 (Archives of the clerk of the municipality of Groningen ± 1916-1963) Nos. 201-203 (Publications of Groningen). Accessed 2009.
- [1968-10] Groningen Archives, Access 1968 (Municipality of Groningen, ± Archive 1965-'87), Inventarisnr. 10 (General Police) Accessed May 25, 2010.
- [1968-33] Groningen Archives, Access 1968 (Municipality of Groningen, ± Archive 1965-'87), part description 33 (Control of immorality). Accessed May 25, 2010.
- [1968-2297] Groningen Archives, Access 1968 (Municipality of Groningen, ± Archive 1965-'87), Inventarisnr. 2297 (Meetings of the council committee ABZ, 1982 and 1983). Accessed June 22, 2010.
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